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An Introduction to Law
An Introduction to Law
İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları
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<p style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">As its title suggests, this book deals with the basics of law, though it also contains many elements drawn from legal theory and philosophy.</p> <p style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">Who will this book be important for? I see many different groups ofreaders who should be interested. The book is, of course, highly relevant and useful for newcomers to the law. Here they will read and learn about the important principles of law. But it will also be valuable for experienced lawyers who every so often wish to return to the basics, the sources as it were, and to measure their concepts of the law with these basic considerations. Given the vast field of law, it is fascinating –and indeed reassuring– to see that certain basic principles apply to all fields of law. In addition, I believe that this book will provide stimulating reading for laypersons who wish to see what ‘law is all about'.</p> <p style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;"><em>I wish this wonderful text the success which it duly and truly deserves</em><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px;" /> <strong>Prof. Dr. Mark VILLIGER, Judge at the European Court of Human Rights </strong></p> <p style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;"><em>This book will give motivated students a good taste of the many varieties and forms of law, as well as a basic understanding of the functions, origins and foundations of legal systems, national and international.</em><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px;" /> <strong>John DARCY, Registry, European Court of Human Rights</strong></p> <p><span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">ix Preface for 2017 Edition</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">xi Preface of the 2009 Edition</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">xv Foreword</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">1 PART ONE Law and Other Rules of Social Conduct</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">3 CHAPTER ONE Society and Order</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">7 CHAPTER TWO Social Order</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">7 1) Moral Order</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">8 A) Relations Between Moral and Legal Rules</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">11 B) Public and Private Morality</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">12 C) Law and Justice</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">16 D) Where Law and Morals Diverge</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">18 E) Discussion Points</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">18 2) Religious Order</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">18 A) Introduction</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">19 B) The Nature of Religious Rules</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">20 C) Secularization of Turkish Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">23 D) The Place of Religion in Turkish Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">24 3) Rules of Manners (Etiquette)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">27 CHAPTER THREE Characteristics Which Distinguish</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">Legal Rules (Norms) from Other Rules of Conduct</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">33 CHAPTER FOUR Application of Legal Rules</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">33 1) The Law and the Facts</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">34 2) The Methods of Reasoning Employed</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">in Reaching the Judgment</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">35 A) Syllogism</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">36 B) Argumentum a Contrario</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">36 C) Analogy</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">37 3) Burden of Proof (Onus Probendi; İspat Yükü)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">40 4) Presumptions (Karineler; Belirgeler)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">41 Statutory (Legal) Presumptions</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">42 Rebuttable Presumptions</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">42 Presumption of Innocence</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">43 Presumption of Good Faith</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">43 Presumption of Ownership</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">43 Presumption of Paternity</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">43 Irrebuttable (Conclusive) Presumptions</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">45 5) Interpretation of Legal Rules</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">46 A) Methods of Interpretation</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">47 a) Textual (Literal) Interpretation</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">48 b) Historical Interpretation (Legislative History)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">48 c) Logical Interpretation</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">48 d) Teleological Interpretation</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">49 e) Free or Unrestricted Interpretation</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">49 f) Interpretation in the field of International Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">51 CHAPTER FIVE Sources of Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">55 CHAPTER SIX Legal Systems of the World</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">55 1) Introduction</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">58 2) A Brief Comparison Between "Civilian”</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">and "Common” Law Systems</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">61 PART TWO Branches of Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">63 CHAPTER ONE Introduction</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">67 CHAPTER TWO Public Law - Private Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">69 CHAPTER THREE Public Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">69 1) The Fundamental Concept of Public Law: The State</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">70 A) Territory</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">71 B) Population</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">72 C) Sovereignty</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">73 2) Branches of Public Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">74 A) Constitutional Law (Anayasa Hukuku)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">74 a) In General</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">76 b) The Rule of Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">78 c) Secularism</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">78 d) Respect for Human Rights</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">80 e) Democratic State</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">81 f) National State</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">81 g) Social State</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">82 h) Judicial Review</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">82 aa) Action for Annulment</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">83 bb) The Constitutional Objection (Incidental Proceedings)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">84 cc) Constitutional Complaint</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">84 B) Administrative Law (İdare Hukuku)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">84 a) In General</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">87 b) Administrative Organization of Turkey</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">87 aa) Central Administration</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">88 bb) Provincial and Municipal Administration</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">89 cc) Emergency Powers of the Administration</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">90 dd) Control of Public Administration</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">90 (i) In General</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">91 (ii) Judicial Review</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">92 C) Criminal Law (Ceza Hukuku)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">92 a) In General</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">93 aa) Definition of Crimes</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">95 bb) Punishment Imposed After Conviction</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">96 b) Aims of Punishment</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">97 c) Criminal Cases Distinguished From Civil Cases</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">98 D) Law of Procedure (Usul Hukuku)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">99 a) Civil Procedure</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">100 b) Criminal Procedure</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">101 c) Other Legal Procedures</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">101 E) Public International Law (Kamusal Uluslararası Hukuk)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">105 F) Environmental Law (Çevre Hukuku)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">107 CHAPTER FOUR Private Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">107 1) Introduction</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">108 2) Branches of Private Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">108 A) Civil Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">109 B) The Preliminary Chapter of the Civil Code</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">110 a) Law of Persons</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">112 b) Family Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">112 c) Law of Succession (Inheritence)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">114 d) Law of Property</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">114 e) Law of Obligations</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">118 C) Commercial Law (Ticaret Hukuku)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">118 a) Introduction</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">120 b) Commercial Partnerships</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">121 (i) General Partnership (Kollektif Şirket)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">121 (ii) Limited (Commandité) Partnership (Komandit Şirket)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">122 (iii) Joint Stock Company (Anonim Şirket)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">122 (iv) Partnership with Limited Liability (Limited Şirket)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">122 (v) Co-operative Partnership</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">123 b) Negotiable Instruments</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">123 D) Private International Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">123 a) Conflict of Laws</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">125 b) Law of Nationality</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">127 c) Law of Aliens</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">127 3) Branches of Law Where Public and</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">Private Characteristics are Mixed</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">128 Labour Law</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">131 Index</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">139 Annexes</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">141 Annex 1: The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">(General Principles)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">145 Annex 2: Turkish Civil Code; Preliminary Chapter</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">147 Annex 3: Universal Declaration of Human Rights</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">153 Annex 4: The French Constitution of 4 October 1958</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">(Preamble and Articles 1-4)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">155 Annex 5: German Constitution (Basic Law)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">(Preamble and Articles 1-19)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">163 Annex 6: Constitution of the Italian Republic (Articles 1-12)</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">165 Glossaries</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">169 English-Turkish Glossary</span><br style="display: block; clear: both; float: none; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;" /> <span style="color: #222222; font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 13.2px;">315 Turkish-English Glossary</span></p>
  • Açıklama
    • As its title suggests, this book deals with the basics of law, though it also contains many elements drawn from legal theory and philosophy.

      Who will this book be important for? I see many different groups ofreaders who should be interested. The book is, of course, highly relevant and useful for newcomers to the law. Here they will read and learn about the important principles of law. But it will also be valuable for experienced lawyers who every so often wish to return to the basics, the sources as it were, and to measure their concepts of the law with these basic considerations. Given the vast field of law, it is fascinating –and indeed reassuring– to see that certain basic principles apply to all fields of law. In addition, I believe that this book will provide stimulating reading for laypersons who wish to see what ‘law is all about'.

      I wish this wonderful text the success which it duly and truly deserves
      Prof. Dr. Mark VILLIGER, Judge at the European Court of Human Rights 

      This book will give motivated students a good taste of the many varieties and forms of law, as well as a basic understanding of the functions, origins and foundations of legal systems, national and international.
      John DARCY, Registry, European Court of Human Rights

      ix Preface for 2017 Edition
      xi Preface of the 2009 Edition
      xv Foreword
      1 PART ONE Law and Other Rules of Social Conduct
      3 CHAPTER ONE Society and Order
      7 CHAPTER TWO Social Order
      7 1) Moral Order
      8 A) Relations Between Moral and Legal Rules
      11 B) Public and Private Morality
      12 C) Law and Justice
      16 D) Where Law and Morals Diverge
      18 E) Discussion Points
      18 2) Religious Order
      18 A) Introduction
      19 B) The Nature of Religious Rules
      20 C) Secularization of Turkish Law
      23 D) The Place of Religion in Turkish Law
      24 3) Rules of Manners (Etiquette)
      27 CHAPTER THREE Characteristics Which Distinguish
      Legal Rules (Norms) from Other Rules of Conduct
      33 CHAPTER FOUR Application of Legal Rules
      33 1) The Law and the Facts
      34 2) The Methods of Reasoning Employed
      in Reaching the Judgment
      35 A) Syllogism
      36 B) Argumentum a Contrario
      36 C) Analogy
      37 3) Burden of Proof (Onus Probendi; İspat Yükü)
      40 4) Presumptions (Karineler; Belirgeler)
      41 Statutory (Legal) Presumptions
      42 Rebuttable Presumptions
      42 Presumption of Innocence
      43 Presumption of Good Faith
      43 Presumption of Ownership
      43 Presumption of Paternity
      43 Irrebuttable (Conclusive) Presumptions
      45 5) Interpretation of Legal Rules
      46 A) Methods of Interpretation
      47 a) Textual (Literal) Interpretation
      48 b) Historical Interpretation (Legislative History)
      48 c) Logical Interpretation
      48 d) Teleological Interpretation
      49 e) Free or Unrestricted Interpretation
      49 f) Interpretation in the field of International Law
      51 CHAPTER FIVE Sources of Law
      55 CHAPTER SIX Legal Systems of the World
      55 1) Introduction
      58 2) A Brief Comparison Between "Civilian”
      and "Common” Law Systems
      61 PART TWO Branches of Law
      63 CHAPTER ONE Introduction
      67 CHAPTER TWO Public Law - Private Law
      69 CHAPTER THREE Public Law
      69 1) The Fundamental Concept of Public Law: The State
      70 A) Territory
      71 B) Population
      72 C) Sovereignty
      73 2) Branches of Public Law
      74 A) Constitutional Law (Anayasa Hukuku)
      74 a) In General
      76 b) The Rule of Law
      78 c) Secularism
      78 d) Respect for Human Rights
      80 e) Democratic State
      81 f) National State
      81 g) Social State
      82 h) Judicial Review
      82 aa) Action for Annulment
      83 bb) The Constitutional Objection (Incidental Proceedings)
      84 cc) Constitutional Complaint
      84 B) Administrative Law (İdare Hukuku)
      84 a) In General
      87 b) Administrative Organization of Turkey
      87 aa) Central Administration
      88 bb) Provincial and Municipal Administration
      89 cc) Emergency Powers of the Administration
      90 dd) Control of Public Administration
      90 (i) In General
      91 (ii) Judicial Review
      92 C) Criminal Law (Ceza Hukuku)
      92 a) In General
      93 aa) Definition of Crimes
      95 bb) Punishment Imposed After Conviction
      96 b) Aims of Punishment
      97 c) Criminal Cases Distinguished From Civil Cases
      98 D) Law of Procedure (Usul Hukuku)
      99 a) Civil Procedure
      100 b) Criminal Procedure
      101 c) Other Legal Procedures
      101 E) Public International Law (Kamusal Uluslararası Hukuk)
      105 F) Environmental Law (Çevre Hukuku)
      107 CHAPTER FOUR Private Law
      107 1) Introduction
      108 2) Branches of Private Law
      108 A) Civil Law
      109 B) The Preliminary Chapter of the Civil Code
      110 a) Law of Persons
      112 b) Family Law
      112 c) Law of Succession (Inheritence)
      114 d) Law of Property
      114 e) Law of Obligations
      118 C) Commercial Law (Ticaret Hukuku)
      118 a) Introduction
      120 b) Commercial Partnerships
      121 (i) General Partnership (Kollektif Şirket)
      121 (ii) Limited (Commandité) Partnership (Komandit Şirket)
      122 (iii) Joint Stock Company (Anonim Şirket)
      122 (iv) Partnership with Limited Liability (Limited Şirket)
      122 (v) Co-operative Partnership
      123 b) Negotiable Instruments
      123 D) Private International Law
      123 a) Conflict of Laws
      125 b) Law of Nationality
      127 c) Law of Aliens
      127 3) Branches of Law Where Public and
      Private Characteristics are Mixed
      128 Labour Law
      131 Index
      139 Annexes
      141 Annex 1: The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey
      (General Principles)
      145 Annex 2: Turkish Civil Code; Preliminary Chapter
      147 Annex 3: Universal Declaration of Human Rights
      153 Annex 4: The French Constitution of 4 October 1958
      (Preamble and Articles 1-4)
      155 Annex 5: German Constitution (Basic Law)
      (Preamble and Articles 1-19)
      163 Annex 6: Constitution of the Italian Republic (Articles 1-12)
      165 Glossaries
      169 English-Turkish Glossary
      315 Turkish-English Glossary

      Stok Kodu
      :
      9786053990758
      Boyut
      :
      16.5X23.5 cm
      Sayfa Sayısı
      :
      376
      Basım Yeri
      :
      İstanbul
      Baskı
      :
      7
      Basım Tarihi
      :
      Ağustos 2019
      Kapak Türü
      :
      Karton Kapak
      Kağıt Türü
      :
      1.Hamur
      Dili
      :
      Türkçe-İngilizce
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